Main Varieties of Quinoa: Peru
After an initial classification of Quinoa according to the main ecotypes(read post), let us try to understand more precisely which are the main varieties of Quinoa starting with those of Peruvian origin by considering the most commercially relevant*.
It is a hybrid derived from crossing Quinoa Real Boliviana and Sajama. This variety is adapted to different environments: plateau, Andean valleys and coast at altitudes ranging from 650 to 3950 m a.s.l. (better results are generally obtained at higher altitudes). It prefers semi-dry and cold climates with rainfall between 400 mm and 560 mm. It therefore has good tolerance to both frost and drought, good resistance to downy mildew, and the growing cycle is short. The seed is large with a low saponin content.
It is the result of a varietal improvement of a seed from the Puno area. This variety, as well as INIA Salcedo, is adapted to different environments: plateau, Andean valleys and coastal area although it gives the best results at high altitudes; it is very tolerant to cold and drought. It is characterized by its very low saponin content (almost zero) and high yield.
INIA 420 - Negra Necklace
This variety consists of 13 accessions generally known as "Quytu jiwras." This variety, as well as INIA Salcedo, is adapted to different environments: Highlands between 3800 and 3900 m a.s.l. (dry and cold climate with rainfall between 400 mm and 550 mm, maximum temperatures between 4°C and 15°C, and semi-sandy soils with PH between 5.5 and 8); It is also adapted to Andean valleys and the coast adapting to the soil and climate conditions seen for Pasankalla.
INIA 427 - Amarilla Sacaca
It is mainly adapted to Andean valleys between 2750 and 3650 m a.s.l., prefers sandy and semi-sandy soils, and has excellent resistance to frost and drought. The vegetative cycle is quite long, considering that in some areas it can reach 210 days.
INIA 431 - Altiplano
This is a hybrid resulting from the cross of Quinoa Real Boliviana and Sajama selected in the Puno area and commercialized since 2013. This variety, selected in the highlands (3800 and 3950 m a.s.l.) has adapted resoundingly to the coastal zone with excellent results in terms of yield. It is one of the varieties with the greatest ability to adapt to different rainfall levels and climates.
When we talk about varieties originating in Peru, Bolivia or Ecuador, it is necessary not to confuse cultivars that are adapted to the coast and varieties grown at sea level. In these cases, when talking about the coast, we are referring to altitudes above 500/600 m above sea level. Varieties grown at sea level are mainly the Chilean varieties, which we will discuss later. The varieties shown in this post certainly represent an excellent starting point for scientific research, but not for use to obtain short-term productive results. It is not difficult to come across seeds of INIA Salcedo or Negra Collana at a reasonable price**, and they can represent a valid alternative for a trial on small areas with the purpose of understanding the plant's behavior, criticalities or vegetative process and perhaps to make a first selection, the important thing is not to do it with the knowledge that, to obtain results you need time and patience.
(*) There are many other varieties, interesting in my opinion, besides the ones mentioned in this post, for reasons of efficiency, I have focused only on the most popular cultivars, those interested in more information can contact me via the form on this blog.
(**) In the interest of fairness, I do not publish references to suppliers, but they are available via the contact form or by email.
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